Nepal and Mongolia established diplomatic relations on 05 January 1961. Nepali Ambassador in Beijing is concurrently accredited to Mongolia and the Mongolian Ambassador in New Delhi is concurrently accredited to Nepal. Both Nepal and Mongolia are land-locked states, located between two big neighbors. As both countries hold strong faith on the principles enshrined in the UN Charter, the Non-aligned Movement and Panchasheela, Nepal and Mongolia hold similar views on many international issues i.e. peace, disarmament, rights of LLDCs, climate change and development.
Exchange of Visits
The high-level exchanges of visits have been the regular features of bilateral relations between the two countries in recent years. The then Prime Minister late Man Mohan Adhikari’s official visit to Mongolia in March 1995 was the highest level of visit to Mongolia from Nepali side.
Minister for Foreign Affairs Hon. Mr. Pradeep Kumar Gyawali visited Mongolia on 10-13 June 2018 to participate in the Inaugural Conference of the International Think Tank for Landlocked Developing Countries (ITT-LLDCs) which was convened in Ulaanbaatar on 11-12 June 2018. During the visit, Foreign Minister Gyawali held bilateral meeting with his Mongolian counterpart Minister for Foreign Affairs H. E. Mr. Damdin Tsogtbaatar. After the meeting they also signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Establishment of Bilateral Consultation Mechanism between the Foreign Ministries. Hon. Foreign Minister also called on President of Mongolia H.E. Khaltmaagiin Battulga.
Similarly, from the Mongolian side, the President of Mongolia Mr. Natsagiin Bagabandi paid a state visit to Nepal on 5-7 January 2001. Chairman of the Great People’s Hural of Mongolia Mr. Bat-Ochircin Altangerel visited Nepal in April 1987 and the Mongolian Foreign Minister Mr. Dugarsuren visited Nepal in April 1978. Likewise, Mr. Tsend Munkh-Orgil, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Mongolia paid three-day official visit to Nepal on 18-20 December 2016. Recently, H. E. Mr. D. Davaasuren, State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs visited Nepal from 30 October -1 November 2018 to hold the first meeting of the bilateral consultation mechanism.
Bilateral Co-operation and Agreements
A Framework Agreement on Bilateral Co-operation was signed between Nepal and Mongolia in 2001 during the visit of the Mongolian President Mr. Natsagiin Bagabandi to Nepal. Nepal and Mongolia also signed a bilateral Trade Agreement in 1992 on the basis of Most Favoured Nation (MFN) treatment. Similarly, a Cultural Agreement was signed between the two countries in 1995 during the visit of the then Prime Minister Mr. Man Mohan Adhikari to Mongolia.
The Two countries have signed Agreement on the Exemption from Visa Requirements for the holders of Diplomatic and Official (Special) Passports during the visit of the Mongolian Foreign Minister to Nepal in December 2016.
The First Meeting of Bilateral Consultation Mechanism between the Foreign Ministries of Nepal and Mongolia was held in Kathmandu on 31 October 2018. Mr. Ganesh Prasad Dhakal, Joint Secretary and the Head of North East Asia Division at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nepal and H. E. D. Davaasuren, State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia led their respective delegations.
Economic and Trade Relations
Though Nepal and Mongolia follow liberalized economic policies, economic ties between them are limited. However, there are some possibilities of expanding economic relations between the two countries. Wool processing, handicrafts, livestock, highland pasturing and horse breeding may be some of the potential areas of bilateral cooperation. Nepal’s data shows that in the FY 2017/18, Nepal’s exports and imports to and from Mongolia amounted to USD 13,000 and USD 71,000 respectively resulting in negative trade balance. There is a high possibility of attracting religious tourists from Mongolia by promoting the Buddhist shrines of Nepal including Lumbini- the birthplace of Lord Buddha.
Cooperation in regional and global issues
Nepal and Mongolia are landlocked countries guided by the principles enshrined in the charter of the United Nations and share similar views on many issues of common interests in international fora in general and towards the interests of landlocked countries in particular.
North East Asia Division,
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
As of February 2019